Articles Tagged with: composition
Working with Compositional Lines

Working with Compositional Lines 

 Composition can make or break a great photograph, which is why it’s important to understand compositional elements and know how to effectively and creatively use it. In essence, composition describes the position of relative elements in a photograph. A strong composition will tend to have leading lines that draw the viewer’s attention towards your subject; these can be horizontal, vertical or diagonal lines depending on the placement of your subject in the frame.

How can you improve your photography and start composing stronger images? Simple, it just takes time to train your vision to see lines, shapes and other repetitions to draw your viewer’s focus towards or away from certain elements within the frame. After all composition is the foundation of every solid photograph. I want to focus on compositional lines and talk about the different types of lines commonly found in compositions. These are my personal tips for envisioning an image through the use of thoughtful construction behind the lens. I’ve included simple to follow diagrams to help illustrate the vision behind the ways different lines can impact the final image. I find it is much easier to grasp a concept or technique through visuals that allow you visualise and understand the importance of composition and how to effectively strengthen your photography out in the field.

Look For Lines

Lines are all around us in our daily lives and we probably don’t recognise this as much as we do once we start thinking about photographs and composition. Once we start thinking about compositional lines the more we realise how useful it becomes as a tool that can drastically improve the way you see and compose your images. Mindful use of lines can add depth or dynamism to your composition and is quite simple to implement once you train your eyes. Simplicity is the key when envisioning composition. The best method of composing solid images is by removing any unwanted distractions and drawing focus to the elements that build the foundation to your photograph.

Leading lines are great way to add depth to your images as our eyes are naturally drawn along these lines, which is a great way to guide the eye to the main subject or a particular element inside the field of view. Another way to achieve depth and dynamism in your photography is the use of abstract lines. Working with abstract lines is a fantastic way to create a sense of tension or confusion within a scene that can give your pictures a more compelling presence. It takes practice, however, once you start seeing these patterns you will be able to work freely, it’s just a matter of becoming conscious of what elements you have around you.

Dynamic Symmetry

Symmetry is everywhere around us, and has always been associated with magnificence, which is why it can dynamically enhance your compositions when used effectively. Symmetry can also work well when broken by placing an object between the symmetrical composition to add tension and a strong focal point to grab the viewer’s attention. Symmetry basically refers to a line that is dividing an object in half to create an exact mirror effect. Symmetrical objects make for extremely eye-catching compositions due to their unusual and often unique prominence. Depending on your position, relative distance to your subject, as well as your choice of framing and the amount of the scene that you frame will aid in strengthening or weakening the symmetric properties of your scene. Reflections in windows and mirrors are probably the most common places you can find symmetric lines, it’s just a matter of deciding the right vantage point to showcase the mirrored effect. Archways, doorways and other architecture are all places you will find these lines. Repetition is a great way to bring a sense of visual rhythm to an image. They do this by creating a more surreal harmony and when combined with other types of lines, shapes and forms they will definitely give your compositions that ‘pop’ to hold your viewer’s attention in the frame.

Vertical Lines

Vertical lines are great way to add a sense of stability to your compositions. These lines run up and down, which stimulate height, grandness and power. Common places you will find vertical lines is in architecture, trees, fences etc. You can also use horizontal lines and transform them into verticals by adjusting your camera angle to change the direction that the lines run through your frame. Once you start projecting a sense of permanency in your compositions the other elements of your frame will fall into place to complement one another. This type of line is very simple to work with and offers endless possibilities in terms of composition.

Horizontal Lines

A horizontal line will tend to indicate a sense of homeostasis (lack of change) and also give your images a greater contrast by separating other more forceful areas of an image. For example, the horizon of a landscape is horizontal, typically separating the sky from the foreground. By composing the horizon in the upper portion of the frame you allow the foreground to appear more dominant. If you were to tilt your camera upwards to reposition the horizon line to the bottom half of the frame, your sky will become more prevailing – it’s as simple as that. This is a very basic sample of how easy it is to effectively and dramatically alter the mood of an image by simply utilising a horizontal line.

Diagonal Lines

These lines often create a strong impression of movement and depth by creating points of interest as they intersect with other types of lines, shapes and elements. Diagonal lines would have to be the strongest and most fundamental compositional elements when we start seeing lines. These are less stable than both horizontal and vertical lines, which is why they can dramatically improve your compositions. Once you start seeing diagonals you will start trying different perspectives, allowing your compositions to flow more freely rather than feeling forced or unplanned. Their power resides in their ascendency to draw the focus to specific areas within an image. Intersecting lines that meet at your subject is one of the most commonly used effects of diagonals. The area where the two lines intersect is where your main focal point will be – this will allow your viewer to focus on the important part of the photograph. Working with these intersecting lines is a fantastic when composing an image where there is a lot of clutter or unwanted distractions obscuring the view. Using two diagonals to direct your viewer’s eyes straight to the main element of your picture is a very effective way to eliminate the disorder to make a more compelling photograph.

Implied Lines

These types of lines are not actual lines that you can see; rather they are implied within the field of view of the camera. They are made by the way certain elements and objects are positioned within your viewfinder/fame. Once you start experimenting with different objects and various angles you will start recognising these implied lines. Common subject matter you will notice these are things such as trees, train tracks, titled floors and many other objects. Implied lines can be horizontal, vertical, diagonal or even abstract depending on how you compose your shot. It’s fun to search out these lines when building your compositions because they offer an abundance of compositional value.

Leading Lines

 Just as the name suggestions, leading lines are used to draw the viewer’s eyes to lines that lead to the main elements of an image by creating a direct path for the eyes to naturally follow. Most leading lines start in the bottom of an image and guide the viewer inwards to reach a vanishing point or the main focal point of an image. This is very much a theoretical process, which is why having a good understanding of compositional value is important. A basic example of a common leading line is a road that fills the foreground of an image and vanishes off into the background. Our eyes are naturally drawn inwards to follow along the roadside. When composing your leading lines, take note of the scene and where you wish to take your viewer. It’s all about pre-visualising the shot and recognising what the prominent lines are in order of using those to create a visual path. Once you’ve determined what the strongest lines are you will be able to utilise them proficiently to accomplish compositional direction.

 

Capturing Compelling Compositions

Every great photograph consists of three key elements. First and foremost composition, lighting and of course the moment. Look at any great image and you’ll notice these elements. What part of the image caught your attention? More often than not, it will be the compositional structure that sets the scene. A poorly composed photo can make a fantastic subject dull, but a well-executed composition has the potential to turn an ordinary situation into something extraordinary. This is why composition is critical and should be paramount for every shot you take.

I want to discuss composition and how photographer’s can improve their work by thoughtfully constructing images that make sense. There a few imperative things to understand when discussing the various principles and importance of composition. Let’s face it; people will not be drawn to our photos if there is nothing of interest to grab their attention. To properly grasp composition and capture powerful, and meaningful photographs, we should understand how the human mind works.


The Basics

Basically, “composition” describes the placement of relative elements in a photograph. A strongly composed image will lead the viewer’s eye towards the main aspects of an image, usually in a specific order. There’s a number of factors that can affect the way an image is visualised and how people perceive your work. Framing, positioning, perspective, focal length, are just a few things that can make all the difference.

There is no way to overstate the significance of composition in any art form. The art to composing a great shot over a good shot requires thoughtful arrangement of particular elements that best portray the photographer’s vision. This can be done by physically rearranging elements within a scene i.e. portrait or landscape photography, where the photographer might ask the subject to reposition, or they might move a stick from a scene to clean up the space. Another approach is by visualising and anticipating a moment before it unfolds; a perfect example of anticipating composition is street photography. Street photographers must think/act quickly to keep up with the fast moving pace of the moving world. It’s often not physically possible to move or ask your subject to change position, therefore you’ll need to anticipate the moment and be ready to click the shutter when the moment unfolds. This is called the ‘fleeting moment’, something to remember when working in fast moving environments.


Reverse Painting

Photography and painting, as art forms have a lot in common. Just, as paintings represent images through the artist’s imagination, a photograph can also be represented through the imagination of the photographer by pre-visualising an image beforehand. The difference between the photography and painting is that painters normally start with a blank canvas and add elements with a paintbrush. Often, photographers work in reverse, starting with a ‘full canvas’ and selectively eliminating the distracting or unwanted elements from the picture. It has been said that paintings are less realistic than photographs, which is habitually true because a photo is usually something that exists. However, a poorly composed photograph can also become unrealistic and misleading. Both art forms require an attentive eye for detail and compositional value.


Visual Tension

Understanding visual tension and how to leverage it in your pictures, you should first consider how the human brain responds to visual information. Think of your mind as a visual archive that processes information and paints a picture in your head of how you perceive the world. When we view an image for the first time our brain instinctively processes this information to show us the bigger picture. To understand this it’s important to note that without our brain it wouldn’t be possible to capture what our eyes perceive. Simply put, what our mind does not know, our eyes cannot see.

As we live in a three-dimensional world, our brain must process the information in order to transfer it onto our eyes, this is because a photo is two-dimensional and that’s all our eyes will distinguish. When we view an image our mind automatically selects the vital features and passes it onto our vision. The brain is also responsible for how we feel when we view an image. Without it we wouldn’t be attracted or emotionally moved by a photograph.

Our brains are limited to how much material we can absorb at a single time. It doesn’t have to be obvious when trying to get your message across. You could be as subtle as you wish, just as long as you entice your viewer’s attention towards the core aspects. Often, it’s possible to derive a whole understanding from the small details and assign meaning to what an image represents without revelling the entire story. If you engage your viewer’s minds in a consequential way than you’ve successfully done your job. If they divert their attention away from the vital parts than it’s likely they’ll lose interest and move on. Adding tension to your pictures can prompt the attentiveness of your viewer’s brain to spend more time studying the image. The key is finding the right balance. With the right amount of detail your audience will recognise that there’s to the picture, giving it meaning.


Contact Sheet

I was with a photo group when I found these men building a house out of bricks in a small fishing village near Hoi An, in Central Vietnam. The group continued ahead, no one stopped to observe this as a potential photo opportunity. I spent 5 minutes watching the men and how they moved. My vision was to create a sense of tension using the layers and textures of the brickwork, however an empty brick wall wasn’t the most interesting subject. The first three shots were very ‘straight’ or obvious that the men were building a house. As I observed the scene, I anticipated the moment when the man would disappear behind the wall to lay another brick, which added a point of interest within the detail. Isolating the foliage in the background and framing just the brickwork enabled me to draw the focus on the man.

Fuji X100S, fixed 35mm f/2 @ 35mm, 1/210s @ f4, 800 ISO, handheld. Contrast, curves, saturation adjusted in Adobe Lightroom.



Exclude the Extraneous

Composition should never complicate the facts. All it takes is some practice to train your eye to identify the various principles of composition. Once you familiarise yourself with the components, you will begin noticing patterns that work for your shooting style. An essential part of the process for capturing powerful and meaningful images is to exclude any irrelevant details. Every shot we take is a frame; this is why it’s good practice to be selective in terms of what we fill our frame with. Of course, the story or narrative will vary depending on how we choose to portray our subject, but there are some basic ‘rules’ or guidelines to consider. For example, you may want to leave your image open to interpretation. If so, you’ll likely eliminate certain parts of the scene, allowing the viewer to put the pieces together.

Another way to compose a frame is by framing within another frame. This can help draw attention to the main part of an image. A strongly composed photo will typically be constructed with some kind of thought or meaning guiding the viewer’s eye to flow naturally, or organically through the entire frame, rather than being forced. When you include only the necessary pieces, your narrative will intensify making it easier and quicker to communicate what it is you want to say.


Relative Distance

Relative distance when talking about composition usually refers to the distance between your subject(s) and the rest of the objects in the frame. This is very similar to adding tension. A basic rule is to avoid overlapping your subjects, as it often over complicates the message. For example, if two people were walking in opposite directions it would more visually engaging to avoid taking the shot when your subjects intersect. Keeping an eye on the relative distance between your subjects, the foreground and background will aid you in how you compose your shot. You obviously don’t want your subjects to overlapping, but you also don’t want any distractions in the background crisscrossing on your main focal point. A good method is to frame your background first and wait for the right moment to take the shot when everything falls into place. It takes time, but it will show that you’ve put some thought into your shot.


Fill The Frame

While negative space can be used effectively to create powerful photos, there’s an old saying by a famous photographer, Robert Capa, who once said, “if your pictures aren’t good enough, you’re not close enough.” Robert wasn’t referring to sticking a telephoto lens on his camera and zooming in; he means physically moving closer to the subject and become more immersed in the moment. This approach can help with not including too much extraneous detail, as the framing and focus will be solely on the subject. Filling the frame makes it obvious in showing your intended objective, which helps carry your message across from the moment your audience view the photograph.

When we fill the frame with the subject up close and personal, the whole dynamic is amplified making for a more dramatic shot. For example, a close up portrait is much more intimate than a full body portrait, as it immediately connects the viewer’s eyes with your subjects eyes. When shooting street photography it’s also good to get in nice and close with a wide angle to give the viewer a sense of being there in the scene. Try finding the contrast between subject and the background to give your images more impact.

It’s also important to mention that filling the frame can become problematic if it’s not accurately executed. An example of this would be missing vital parts to the narrative by cropping off critical elements. The solution is to take a few shots, move back and forth to see what works best. If you have the time, it takes very little energy to use your feet. Avoid using a zoom lens, as this will make you lazy. A nice fast prime lens is your best friend.


Avoid Cropping

This may be a personal preference of mine, but try to avoid cropping my images in post. I find greater satisfaction in perfecting the composition in camera. Not only does this save time when it comes to post-processing on the computer, it also makes me more observant when composing my shots. Now, this may not suit everyone and will vary depending what you shoot, but I find it good to practice perfecting composition without relying on cropping later.

Patterns and Repetitions

Patterns are aesthetically pleasing when we look at photos, but the best is when the pattern is interrupted or broken. This may seem mundane in everyday life, however when we start thinking in terms of composition it can really give your images impact. Think of patterns as a photographs rhythm, they give the structure harmony. When we start experimenting with different repetitions (lines, patterns, colours) our images come to life.

There are two ways of using repetition in photography. You can either emphasize it or break it completely. Filling your frame with repetitive patterns will allure you eye into the shot. A good rule is to focus as close as possible, perhaps zooming in on the detailed area so that the pattern resumes its repetition throughout the entire frame. This also adds depth and complexity. For example, I used the lines and texture the brick wall to add repetition. This made the image more visual, giving it a jigsaw puzzle feel.

When we start breaking patterns we increase the tension within an image. This can be a great way of focusing on a specific element. An example could be a straight line that suddenly changes directions and directs your eye to the main subject or focal point. Positioning your subject within an attention-grabbing pattern can aid in stimulating your viewer’s attention and encourage them look deeper into an image.

Working With Compositional Lines

Composition can make or break a great photograph, this is why it’s important to understand it and know how to effectively and creatively use it. In essence, composition describes the position of relative elements in a photograph. A strong composition will tend to have leading lines that draw attention to your subject, these can be horizontal, vertical or diagonal lines depending on the placement of your subject in the frame.

Have a look at the following images and see how I have composed each scene with the use of lines leading towards my subjects. I have drawn arrows in Photoshop on the photos to help share my vision when I was composing each shot. Hopefully those who aren’t familiar with composition will be able to visualise and understand it’s importance and how to go about composing the perfect shot.

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This image I wanted to lead the viewers eyes through the frame and down the long corridor while having the novice monk looking against the diagonal lines. The woman carrying the basket on her head in the background was walking with the line of the pathway which helped add direction. Notice the continuous pattern created by the pillars of the corridor and how they get smaller the further into the image. This helped add depth with the main focus on the monk in the foreground.

2

 
This was a fairly simple composition with my subject centred in my frame. I composed the shot so that the fishing net would draw diagonal lines inwards to the fisherman. The use of my wide angle lens helped distort the frame to add depth.

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The focus was the novice monks but I also wanted to capture the ambient light and use the sun rays coming through the window as a source of direction. By composing the shot with the monks sitting beneath the beams of light I was able to draw focus downwards to their books while using the wall on the left to draw a line towards them.

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Here I composed my shot with the novice in the left third of the image and used the pillars on the right hand side to add depth into the shot. The lines along the pathway to the right add a leading line towards the monk while the ceiling draws the eye downwards with the monk looking down as he walked towards me. A very simple but strong composition taken with a wide angle lens.

12

 

This is another centred composition with the monk sitting in the lower middle of frame. By shooting from a low angle I was able to create some distortion with the wide angle lens to point diagonal lines downwards towards the monk while the brickwork created focus horizontally to the middle of frame. The tiles on the floor also pointed lines inwards to make this a tight composition.

13

 

This was an unusual composition for me as I don’t really favour titled horizons, however it worked in this scenario by shooting from a low angle from the fisherman’s boat. As he held out his basket it created a reflection on the water which added direction pointing towards the centre of frame. The horizon runs from the bottom left and diagonally to the upper right creating a cross section composition.

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Another fairly straightforward composition. The light was spilling in from the left of frame so I composed the shot with the novice standing on the right of frame looking across towards the light. The angled light pointed towards the monk creating deep contrast which helped pull the shot together.